New York Natural Heritage Program
Spruce-Fir Swamp
Spruce-fir swamp at Raquette Boreal Forest Shane Gebauer
System: Palustrine
SubSystem: Forested Mineral Soil Wetlands

State Protection: Not Listed
Federal Protection: Not Listed

State Rarity Rank: S3
A State Rarity Rank of S3 means: Typically 21 to 100 occurrences, limited acreage, or miles of stream in New York State.

Global Rarity Rank: G3G4
A Global Rarity Rank of G3G4 means: Vulnerable globally, or Apparently Secure -- At moderate risk of extinction, with relatively few populations or locations in the world, few individuals, and/or restricted range; or uncommon but not rare globally; may be rare in some parts of its range; possibly some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors. More information is needed to assign a single conservation status.


Did you know?
Red spruce is the common dominant in spruce-fir swamps. However, in the Adirondacks black spruce may replace red spruce as the dominant tree. In areas where red spruce and black spruce inhabit the same community, the two may hybridize. Black spruce is distinguishable from red spruce by its smaller dull gray cones on short stalks, which curve downward and remain attached.

State Ranking Justification [-]
There are several hundred occurrences statewide. Some documented occurrences have good viability and several are protected on public land or private conservation land. This community is widespread throughout the northern half of New York, and includes a few large, high quality, old-growth examples. The current trend of this community is probably stable for occurrences on public land, or declining slightly elsewhere due to moderate threats that include logging, alteration of the natural hydrology, and invasive species.

Short-term Trends [-]

Long-term Trends [-]