New York Natural Heritage Program
Dragon's Mouth Orchid
Arethusa bulbosa L.
Monocots

Habitat [-]
This is an orchid of sphagnum hummocks within rich graminoid fens and medium fens. Smaller populations are also located in wet depressions of maritime shrub thickets on the morainal bluffs near the Atlantic Ocean (New York Natural Heritage Program 1998). Sphagnum bogs and swampy meadows (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Sphagnous bogs and peaty meadows (Fernald 1970).

Associated Ecological Communities [-]
  • Dwarf shrub bog*
    A wetland usually fed by rainwater or mineral-poor groundwater and dominated by short, evergreen shrubs and peat mosses. The surface of the peatland is usually hummocky, with shrubs more common on the hummocks and peat moss throughout. The water in the bog is usually nutrient-poor and acidic.

    * probable association but not confirmed
  • Inland poor fen
    A wetland fed by acidic water from springs and seeps. Plant remains in these fens do not decompose rapidly and thus the plants in these fens usually grow on older, undecomposed plant parts of mostly sphagnum mosses.
  • Maritime shrubland
    A shrubland community that occurs on dry seaside bluffs and headlands that are exposed to offshore winds and salt spray.
  • Medium fen
    A wetland fed by water from springs and seeps. These waters are slightly acidic (pH values generally range from 4.5 to 6.5) and contain some dissolved minerals. Plant remains in these fens do not decompose rapidly and thus the plants in these fens usually grow on older, undecomposed plant parts of woody material, grasses, and mosses.
  • Northern white cedar swamp
    A swamp that occurs on organic soils in cool, poorly drained depressions in central and northern New York, and along lakes and streams in the northern half of the state. These swamps are often spring-fed with continually saturated soils. Soils are often rich in calcium. The characteristic tree is northern white cedar, which makes up more than 30% of the canopy cover.
  • Perched bog*
    A wetland that occurs in shallow depressions in rock outcrops where the water table is locally higher than expected (perched) because of an impervious soil or rock layer. The most abundant plants are peat mosses (Sphagnum) and ericaceous shrubs. The water is usually very acidic and has low amounts of dissolved minerals.

    * probable association but not confirmed
  • Rich graminoid fen
    A wetland of mostly grasses usually fed by water from highly calcareous springs or seepage. These waters have high concentrations of minerals and high pH values, generally from 6.0 to 7.8. Plant remains do not decompose rapidly and these grasses usually grow on older, undecomposed plant parts.
  • Rich shrub fen
    A wetland with many shrubs that is usually fed by water from springs and seeps. These waters have high concentrations of minerals and high pH values, generally from 6.0 to 7.8. Plant remains in these fens do not decompose rapidly and thus the plants in these fens usually grow on older, undecomposed woody plant parts.

Associated Species [-]
  • (Andromeda glaucophylla)
  • Tuberous Grass-pink (Calopogon tuberosus)
  • Lesser Panicled Sedge (Carex diandra)
  • Little Prickly Sedge (Carex echinata)
  • Coast Sedge (Carex exilis)
  • American Woollyfruit Sedge (Carex lasiocarpa)
  • Mud Sedge (Carex limosa)
  • Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)
  • Spoon-leaved Sundew (Drosera intermedia)
  • Roundleaf Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia)
  • Threeway Sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum)
  • Rough Cotton-grass (Eriophorum tenellum)
  • Sheep-laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)
  • Pale Laurel (Kalmia polifolia)
  • Tamarack (Larix laricina)
  • Water Loosestrife (Lysimachia thyrsiflora)
  • Canada May-flower (Maianthemum canadense)
  • Bog Buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata)
  • Sweet Bayberry (Myrica gale)
  • Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis)
  • Black Spruce (Picea mariana)
  • Rose Pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides)
  • Bog Labrador Tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
  • Swamp Azalea (Rhododendron viscosum)
  • Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea)
  • Marsh Fern (Thelypteris palustris)
  • Northern Starflower (Trientalis borealis)
  • Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
  • Small Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)