New York Natural Heritage Program
False Toadflax
Geocaulon lividum (Richards.) Fern.
Dicots
Geocaulon lividum with fruit. Lorraine Anderson
Family: Sandalwood Family (Santalaceae)

State Protection: Endangered
listed species are those with: 1) 5 or fewer extant sites, or 2) fewer than 1,000 individuals, or 3) restricted to fewer than 4 U.S.G.S. 7 minute topographical maps, or 4) species listed as endangered by U.S. Department of Interior.

Federal Protection: Not Listed

State Rarity Rank: S1
A State Rarity Rank of S1 means: This plant is endangered/critically imperiled in New York because of extreme rarity (typically 5 or fewer populations or very few remaining individuals) or is extremely vulnerable to extirpation from New York due to biological factors.

Global Rarity Rank: G5
A Global Rarity Rank of G5 means: This species is demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.


Did you know?
This plant is part of the mostly tropical sandalwood family. The genus name Geocaulon is from the greek ge, earth, and caulos, stalk and is in reference to the long slightly subterranean but scarcely modified stems (Fernald 1970).

Geocaulon species are hemi-parasites: that is, although they do produce their own food using chlorophyll like other green plants , they also obtain some nutrients by penetrating the roots of other plants.

State Ranking Justification [-]
There are 8 known and about 4 historical (not seen within 20 years) populations in New York State. Two of the historical populations were searched for without success, but more survey work is needed at these sites before they can be determined extirpated. All of the populations are limited to the highest mountains in the high peaks region of the Adirondacks and most are quite small. Some of the populations are threatened by trampling by hiker traffic. This species is at the edge of its range in New York, where the cool alpine habita it requires is very limited in distribution.

Short-term Trends [-]

Long-term Trends [-]