New York Natural Heritage Program
Hydrastis canadensis L.
Best Identification Reference
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

Other References
Bannerman, J. 1997. The goldenseal dilemma: Saving the plant that heals. The Institute of Conservation & Culture, New Orleans, Louisiana. Manuscript in preparation.
Benigni, R., et al. 1962. Piante Medicinali-Chimica, Farmacologia e Terapia, Vol. 1. Inverni & Della Beffa, Milan.
Bradley, P., ed. 1992. British Herbal Compendium, Vol. 1. British Herbal Medical Association, Dorset, U.K.
Brevoort, P. The U.S. botanical market: An overview. HerbalGram No. 36: 49-57.
CITES. 1997. Amendments to Appendices I and II of the Convention on Internation Trade in Endangered Species and Wild Fauna and Flora. Online. 14 January 2000.
Catling, P.M. and Small, E. 1994. Poorly known economic plants of Canada. 3. Hydrastis canadensis L. CBA/ABC Bull. 27(3): 50-51.
Crow, G.E. 1982. New England's rare, threatened, and endangered plants. USWFS Northeast Region, Newton Corners, MA.
Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.
Elliott, D. 1995. Wild Roots: A Forager's Guide to the Edible and Medicinal Roots, Tubers, Corms, and Rhizomes of North America. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont. Pp. 30-31.
Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.
Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.
Foster, S. 1991. Goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis. American Botanical Council, Botanical Series No. 309. 8 pp.
Foster, S. 1995. Forest Pharmacy: Medicinal Plants in American Forests. Forest History Society, Durham, North Carolina.
Gleason, H.A. 1968. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Vol. 3. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. Hafner Publishing Co., Inc., New York.
Grieve, M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Vol. 1-2. Dover Publications Inc., New York, New York. 888 p.
Henkel, A., and G.F. Klugh. 1904. Golden seal. U.S. Dept. Agric., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 51, Part 6. 16 pp.
Hill, A.F. 1952. Economic Botany, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 560 pp.
Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.
House, Homer D. 1924. Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York State. New York State Museum Bulletin 254:1-758.
Kaneda, Y. 1991. In vitro effects of berberine sulfate on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Tricomonas vaginalis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 85: 417-425.
Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Kauffman, G. 1996. Biological White Paper on Hydrastis canadensis. North Carolina. Manuscript in preparation.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Liu, C.X. 1991. Studies on plant resources, pharmacology and clinical treatment with berberine. Phytother. Res. 5: 228-230.
Lloyd, J.U. and C.G. Lloyd. 1884-1885. Drugs and Medicines of North America, Vol. 1, Ranunculaceae. Clarke, Cincinnati, Ohio. 304 pp.
Lloyd, J.U., and C.G. Lloyd. 1908. Hydrastis canadensis. Bull. Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica 10. 184 pp.
McGuffin, Michael. Personal communication. American Herbal Products Association, 8484 Georgia Ave., Suite 370, Silver Spring MD 20910. (301) 588-1171.
Medical Sciences Bulletin. 1996 (Oct.). Treatment Options for HIV: The Health Food Store Connection. Online: PharmInfoNet Home Page.
Mills, S.Y. 1991. Out of the Earth: The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. Viking, London. Pp. 439-441. Millspaugh, C.F. 1887 [1974]. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, New York, p. 9-2.
Mitchell, R.S. 1982. Recovery plan and status of northern monk's-hood (Aconitum noveboracense) in New York State.
Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.
Murray, M. 1995. The Healing Power of Herbs. Prima, Rocklin, Calif. Pp. 162-172.
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Planet Herbs. 1999. Planet Herbs: Natural botanicals wholesale. Online. Available: Accessed 2000-Jan.
Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.
Sack, R.B. and Froehlich, J.L. 1982. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae toxins and E. coli enterotoxins. Infect. Immun. 35: 471-475.
Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man, 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 657 pp.
Smith, Gerald A. No date. Bird breeding season survey at El Dorado Beach Preserve 1981-.
Sun, D. 1988. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1370-1374.
Veninga, L. and B. Zaricor. 1976. Goldenseal/Etc: A Pharmacognosy of Wild Herbs. Ruka Publications, Santa Cruz.
Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research University of South Florida]. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York
Wofford, B.E. 1989. Guide to vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. University of Georgia Press. Athens, Georgia.


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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 22-Aug-2017