New York Natural Heritage Program
Golden-seal
Hydrastis canadensis L.
Dicots

Habitat [-]
Goldenseal colonies are found at the bottom or mid-slopes of rich woodlands, often near streams. Sometimes the slopes are deeply dissected by runoff or they may consist of limestone talus and cliffs. The forests are usually mature with old logs and an open understory with a diverse Spring wildflower flora. The underlying rock is usually limestone and the soils are rich in organic matter, sometimes with springs emanating from the slopes. (New York Natural Heritage Program 2007). Deep rich woods (Fernald 1970). Deep rich woods (Gleason 1952).

Associated Ecological Communities [-]
  • Calcareous talus slope woodland
    An open or closed canopy community that occurs on talus slopes composed of calcareous bedrock such as limestone or dolomite. The soils are usually moist and loamy; there may be numerous rock outcrops.
  • Floodplain forest
    A hardwood forest that occurs on mineral soils on low terraces of river floodplains and river deltas. These sites are characterized by their flood regime; low areas are annually flooded in spring, and high areas are flooded irregularly.
  • Limestone woodland
    A woodland that occurs on shallow soils over limestone bedrock in non-alvar settings, and usually includes numerous rock outcrops. There are usually several codominant trees, although one species may become dominant in any one stand.
  • Maple-basswood rich mesic forest
    A species rich hardwood forest that typically occurs on well-drained, moist soils of circumneutral pH. Rich herbs are predominant in the ground layer and are usually correlated with calcareous bedrock, although bedrock does not have to be exposed. The dominant trees are sugar maple, basswood, and white ash.
  • Oak-tulip tree forest
    A hardwood forest that occurs on moist, well-drained sites in southeastern New York. The dominant trees include a mixture of five or more of the following: red oak, tulip tree, American beech, black birch, red maple, scarlet oak, black oak, and white oak.

Associated Species [-]
  • Black Maple (Acer nigrum)
  • Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)
  • Northern Maidenhair-fern (Adiantum pedatum)
  • White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima)
  • Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata)
  • Narrow-leaved Wild Leek (Allium tricoccum)
  • American Hogpeanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata)
  • Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
  • Canada Wild-ginger (Asarum canadense)
  • Southern Lady Fern (Athyrium filix-femina)
  • Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)
  • Cutleaf Toothwort (Cardamine concatenata)
  • Two-leaf Toothwort (Cardamine diphylla)
  • Broad-leaved Sedge (Carex platyphylla)
  • American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
  • Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis)
  • Big Shellbark Hickory (Carya laciniosa)
  • Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)
  • Virginia Springbeauty (Claytonia virginica)
  • Canada Horse-balm (Collinsonia canadensis)
  • Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)
  • Canada Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis)
  • Bulblet Fern (Cystopteris bulbifera)
  • Silvery Spleenwort (Deparia acrostichoides)
  • Field Horsetail (Equisetum arvense)
  • White Trout-lily (Erythronium albidum)
  • White Wood-aster (Eurybia divaricata)
  • American Beech (Fagus grandifolia)
  • White Ash (Fraxinus americana)
  • Licorice Bedstraw (Galium circaezans)
  • Wild Crane's-bill (Geranium maculatum)
  • American Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
  • Round-leaved Liverleaf (Hepatica nobilis)
  • Twinleaf (Jeffersonia diphylla)
  • Spicebush (Lindera benzoin)
  • Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
  • Cucumber Magnolia (Magnolia acuminata)
  • Large False Solomon‘s-seal (Maianthemum racemosum)
  • Ostrich Fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris)
  • Canada Moonseed (Menispermum canadense)
  • Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
  • Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)
  • Broad Beech Fern (Phegopteris hexagonoptera)
  • Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
  • May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum)
  • Downy Solomon's-seal (Polygonatum pubescens)
  • White-flower Leafcup (Polymnia canadensis)
  • Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)
  • Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana)
  • White Oak (Quercus alba)
  • Red Oak (Quercus rubra)
  • Littleleaf Buttercup (Ranunculus abortivus)
  • Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
  • Bluestem Goldenrod (Solidago caesia)
  • Broad-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis)
  • American Bladdernut (Staphylea trifolia)
  • Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)
  • Early Meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum)
  • New York Fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis)
  • White Basswood (Tilia americana)
  • Eastern Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
  • Wake Robin (Trillium erectum)
  • Large-flower Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
  • Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
  • Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)
  • Large-flowered Bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora)
  • Sessile-leaved Bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia)
  • Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium)
  • Long-spur Violet (Viola rostrata)