New York Natural Heritage Program
Basil-balm
Monarda clinopodia L.
Dicots

Habitat [-]
Rich mesophytic forest in moist soils, Rich dry woods, Thicket, base of hill.Island in Niagara river  Edge of a road through bottomland woods.Disturbed gully between two railroad line tracks, Bottomland woods. Tioga fine sandy loam. plunge basin in the center of a deep ravine Schrubby thickets, along main road (NYNHP 2015). Moist woods, thickets, ravines, and streambanks (Fernald 1950).

Associated Ecological Communities [-]
  • Floodplain forest*
    A hardwood forest that occurs on mineral soils on low terraces of river floodplains and river deltas. These sites are characterized by their flood regime; low areas are annually flooded in spring, and high areas are flooded irregularly.

    * probable association but not confirmed
  • Maple-basswood rich mesic forest*
    A species rich hardwood forest that typically occurs on well-drained, moist soils of circumneutral pH. Rich herbs are predominant in the ground layer and are usually correlated with calcareous bedrock, although bedrock does not have to be exposed. The dominant trees are sugar maple, basswood, and white ash.

    * probable association but not confirmed
  • Rich mesophytic forest
    A hardwood or mixed forest that resembles the mixed mesophytic forests of the Allegheny Plateau south of New York but is less diverse. It occurs on rich, fine-textured, well-drained soils that are favorable for the dominance of a wide variety of tree species. A canopy with a relatively large number of codominant trees characterizes this forest. Canopy codominants include five or more of the following species: red oak, red maple, white ash, American beech, sugar maple, black cherry, cucumber tree, and black birch.
  • Shrub swamp*
    An inland wetland dominated by tall shrubs that occurs along the shore of a lake or river, in a wet depression or valley not associated with lakes, or as a transition zone between a marsh, fen, or bog and a swamp or upland community. Shrub swamps are very common and quite variable.

    * probable association but not confirmed
  • Successional shrubland*
    A shrubland that occurs on sites that have been cleared (for farming, logging, development, etc.) or otherwise disturbed. This community has at least 50% cover of shrubs.

    * probable association but not confirmed

Associated Species [-]
  • Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
  • Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum)
  • Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)
  • American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
  • Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)
  • Canada Horse-balm (Collinsonia canadensis)
  • Wild Crane's-bill (Geranium maculatum)
  • Dame's-rocket (Hesperis matronalis)
  • Allegheny Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)
  • Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
  • (Solidago)
  • Large-flower Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
  • Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)